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 Backlighting  Placement of a light source behind an object so that a silhouette of that object is formed. It is used where outline information of the object and its features are important rather than surface features.
 BAYER  Patent of Dr. Bryce E. Bayer of Eastman Kodak. This patent refers to a particular arrangement of color filters used in most single-chip digital image sensors used in digital cameras to create a color image. The filter pattern is 50% green, 25% red and 25% blue, hence is also called RGBG or GRGB
 Bayer Conversion
  Conversion of Bayer color (obtained from a Bayer matrix or color filter array) into RGB color
 BAYER Demosaicing
  BAYER demosaicing is the process of transforming the BAYER mosaic back to RGB.
 BAYER Filter
  see BAYER mosaic
 BAYER Mosaic
  A Bayer filter mosaic is a color filter array (CFA) for arranging RGB color filters on a square grid of photo sensors. The term derives from the name of its inventor, Bryce Bayer of Eastman Kodak, and refers to a particular arrangement of color filters used in most single-chip digital cameras. Bryce Bayer's patent called the green photo sensors luma-sensitive elements and the red and blue ones chrominance-sensitive elements. He used twice as many green elements as red or blue to mimic the human eye's greater resolving power with green light. These elements are referred to as samples and after interpolation become pixels. The raw output of Bayer-filter cameras is referred to as a Bayer Pattern image. Since each pixel is filtered to record only one of the three colors, two-thirds of the color data is missing from each. A demosaicing algorithm is used to interpolate a set of complete red, green, and blue values for each point, to make an RGB image. Many different algorithms exist.
 Bayer, Dr. Bryce E.
  Dr. Bryce E. Bayer (Eastman Kodak) is the inventor of the so-called BAYER patent (20 July 1976).
 Beamsplitter used with Diffuse Lighting Source   A prismatic structure which directs a diffuse light source coaxial with the optical axis of the application. A 50/50 beamsplitter creates two beams.
 Big endian
  Byte order: big units first (compare: little endian)
 Bilingual connector  Beside the GOF connector PIKE cameras have the bilingual connector a copper connection, which is able to speak 1394a & 1394b.
 Binning  Binning is the process of combining neighboring pixels while being read out from the CCD chip.
 Binning Factor
  Binning factor is the number of pixels to be combined on a CCD during binning. A binning factor of 2x2 means that the pixels in two rows and two columns (a total of four pixels) are combined for CCD readout.
 Bit Depth
  Bit depth is the number of bits that are digitized by the A/D converter.
 Bitmap  A raster graphics image, digital image, or bitmap, is a data file or structure representing a generally rectangular grid of pixels, or points of color, on a computer monitor, paper, or other display device.
 Blooming  A pixel on a digital camera sensor collects photons which are converted into an electrical charge by its photo diode. Once the full well capacity of the pixel is full, the charge caused by additional photons will overflow and have no effect on the pixel value, resulting in a clipped or overexposed pixel value. Blooming occurs when this charge flows over to surrounding pixels, brightening or overexposing them in the process. As a result detail is lost. Blooming can also increase the visibility of purple fringing.
 BMP bitmap
  The BMP (bit mapped) format is used internally in the Microsoft Windows operating system to handle graphics images. These files are typically not compressed resulting in large files. The main advantage of BMP files is their wide acceptance and use in Windows programs. Their large size makes them unsuitable for file transfer. Desktop backgrounds and images from scanners are usually stored in BMP files.
 Board Level Cameras   Cameras that are not yet housed or connected to particular terminations. These devices are completely functioning units.
 Board Level Lenses    Fixed focal length lenses used on cameras with board-mounted sensors (regardless of their other possible characteristics)
 Bright Field Illumination
 Bright field microscopy is the simplest of all the light microscopy techniques. Sample illumination is via transmitted white light, i.e. illuminated from below and observed from above. Limitations include low contrast of most biological samples and low apparent resolution due to the blur of out of focus material. The simplicity of the technique and the minimal sample preparation required are significant advantages.




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