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 Gain  Gain is the same as the contrast control on your TV. It is a multiplication of the signal. In math terms, it controls the slope of the exposure/time curve. The camera should normally be operated at the lowest gain possible, because gain not only multiplies the signal, but also multiplies the noise. Gain comes in very handy when you require a short exposure (say, because the object is moving and you do not want any blur), but do not have adequate lighting. In this situation the gain can be increased so that the image signal is strong.
 Gamma  Gamma is the exponent in a power-law relationship between video or pixel values and the displayed brightness. Each pixel in a digital image has a certain level of brightness ranging from black (0) to white (1). These pixel values serve as the input for your computer monitor. Due to technical limitations, CRT monitors output these values in a nonlinear way: When unadjusted, most CRT monitors have a gamma of 2.5 which means that pixels with a brightness of 0.5, will be displayed with a brightness of only 0.52.5= 0.18 in non-colormanaged applications. LCDs, in particular those on notebooks, tend to have rather irregularly shaped output curves. Calibration via software and/or hardware ensures that the monitor outputs the image based on a predetermined gamma curve, typically 2.2 for Windows, which is approximately the inverse of the response of the human vision. The sRGB and Adobe RGB color spaces are also based on a gamma of 2.2. A monitor with a gamma equal to 1.0 would respond in a linear way (Output = Input) and images created on a system with a gamma of 2.2 would appear flat and overly bright in non-color managed applications.
 General Purpose CPU   An off-the-shelf central processing unit developed for personal computers but also deployable in other devices requiring compute power. Example: Intel Pentium processor.
 General Zoom Lens  Zoomed lenses without a macro capability (See "Zoom Lenses".)
 GIF  GIF = Graphics Interchange Format GIF is one of the most common file formats used for images in web pages. There are two versions of the format, 87a and 89a. Version 89a supports animations, i.e. a short sequence of images within a single GIF file. A GIF89a can also be specified for interlaced presentation.
 Gigabit Ethernet
  Gigabit Ethernet is an industry standard interface used for high-speed computer networks that is now being adapted as a camera interface. This generalized networking interface is being adapted for use as a standard interface for high-performance machine vision cameras that is called GigE Vision.
 GigE Vision
  GigE Vision is a new interface standard, published by the AIA, for high-performance machine vision cameras. GigE (Gigabit Ethernet), on the other hand, is simply the network structure on which GiGE Vision is built. The GigE Vision standard includes both a hardware interface standard (Gigabit Ethernet), communications protocols, and standardized camera control registers. The camera control registers are based on a command structure called GenICam. GenICam seeks to establish a common software interface so that third party software can communicate with cameras from various manufacturers without customization. GenICam is incorporated as part of the GigE Vision standard. GigE Vision is analogous to FireWire's DCAM, or IIDC interface standard and has great value for reducing camera system integration costs and for improving ease of use.
 GigE VisionTM   "GigE " is an Ethernet protocol involving transmission rates of 1 Gbps (gigabits per second). GigE VisionTM is a new AIA standard that allows cameras to take advantage of GigE transmission rates.
 Global Pipelined Shutter
  A global pipelined shutter assures that the integration for all pixels starts and stops at the same moment in time. The integration of the next image is possible during the readout of the previously captured image.
 Global Shutter
  All pixels are exposed to the light at the same moment and for the same time span.
 GOF  GOF connection is a glass fiber connection that conforms to 1394b. The advantage of this is the galvanic disconnection between the camera and the PC (e.g. for medical purposes) and the enhanced cable distance (up to 500 m, with GOF "only" in the range of up to 20 m). Beside the optional GOF port in the (PIKE) camera, AVT offers 1394b cards with GOF interface for a point-to-point connection between the camera and the PC. Beside the GOF connector PIKE cameras have the bilingual connector. This is a copper connection, which is able to "speak" 1394a & 1394b.

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