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 Saturation  In color theory, saturation or purity is the intensity of a specific hue. It is based on the color's purity; a highly saturated hue has a vivid, intense color, while a less saturated hue appears more muted and grey. With no saturation at all, the hue becomes a shade of gray. Saturation is one of three coordinates in the HSL color space and the HSV color space. The saturation of a color is determined by a combination of light intensity and how much it is distributed across the spectrum of different wavelengths. The purest color is achieved by using just one wavelength at a high intensity such as in laser light. If the intensity drops the saturation also drops.
 Scalable Mode
  Scalable mode allows selection of an area within a full image for output.
 Sensitivity  Sensitivity is a measure of how sensitive the camera sensor is to light input. Unfortunately there is no standardized method of describing sensitivity for digital CCD or CMOS cameras.
 Sensor Frame Rate  Frame rate, sample rate, capture rate and image (or camera) speed are interchangeable terms. Measured in frames per second, the imager's speed is one of the most important considerations in motion capture analysis. The frame rate is determined after considering the speed of the event, the size of the area under study, the number of images needed to obtain all the event's essential information, and the frame rates that are available from the motion analyzer being used. For example, at 1,000 fps, a picture is taken once every millisecond.
 Sentry 9000
  High Performance CPU - Integrated Support for Area and Line Scan Cameras - Multiple Camera Integration - Flexible Image Trigger - Direct Digital I/O Signal Interface - LCD Touch Panel - Compact Factory Ready Industrial Package - Variety of Communication Interface Options
 Shading  The variation of the brightness or relative illumination over the surface of an object, often caused by color variations or surface curvature.
 Signal-to-noise Ratio
  Also called SNR; Signal-to-noise ratio specifies the quality of a signal with regard to its reproduction of intensities. The value signifies how high the ratio of noise is in regard to the maximum wanted signal intensity expected. The higher this value, the better the signal quality. The unit of measurement used is generally known as the decibel (dB), a logarithmic power level. 6 dB is the signal level at approximately a factor of 2. However, the advantages of increasing signal quality are accompanied by a reduction in resolution.
 Signal-to-noise Separation
  Signal-to-noise separation specifies the quality of a signal with regard to its reproduction of intensities. The value signifies how high the ratio of noise is in regard to the maximum wanted signal intensity expected. The higher this value, the better the signal quality. The unit of measurement used is generally known as the decibel (dB), a logarithmic power level. 6 dB is the signal level at approximately a factor of 2. However, the advantages of increasing signal quality are accompanied by a reduction in resolution.
 Smart Camera
  A term for a complete vision system contained in the camera body itself, including imaging, image processing and decision making functions. While the common smart cameras are intended just for the dedicated systems, the latest PC technology enables development of devices fully compatible with desktop PCs. This category of smart cameras thus provides a standard API and thus much wider functionality.
 Smart Sensor  A photo sensor with minimal vision algorithms
 Smear  Smear is an undesirable artifact of CCDs that appears in the picture as a vertical streak above and below a very bright object in the scene. Smear is caused by parasitic light getting into the vertical transfer registers. It is greatly reduced by the micro-lens type of CCD used in Hyper HAD and Power HAD sensors. Almost suppressed in FIT CCDs.
 Smoothing-Gaussian
  Gaussian filtering based on the kernel. Attenuates the variations of light intensity in the neighborhood of a pixel. The Gaussian kernel has the following model: a d c b x b c d a where a, b, c and d are integers and x < 1.
 Smoothing-Local Average
  Local averaging of the image pixels based on the kernel.
 Smoothing-Lowpass  Lowpass filtering. Smooths images by eliminating details and blurring edges.
 Smoothing-Median
  Median filtering. Each pixel is assigned the median value of its neighborhood.
 SNR  SNR = signal-to-noise ratio
 Specularity  The amount of reflectivity of an object's surface
 Spot Lighting  High intensity illumination directed to a specific spot
 Square  Square Root Reduces contrast in bright regions. Similar to Logarithmic but with a more gradual effect.
 Square Pixel
  Pixels of the same x and y dimensions (pixel aperture ratio PAR = 1). In the case of rectangular (non-square) pixels (usual in TV) one must maintain the aspect ratio when measuring objects, because the dimensions of stored frames aren't equal to true dimensions; resolutions along x and y axes aren't the same. Use of square pixels solves such problems - picture elements are equally arrayed in both directions, and allow easy addressing. Thus aspect ratio of the image does not require adjustment. This is needed in image processing tasks requiring accurate image measuring. Aspect ratio: The ratio of horizontal to vertical dimension of the illuminated sensing area. Pixel aperture dimension ratio: Defines the pixel dimension (the ratio of its width to height). This parameter describes the resolution (granularity) and the reproduction behavior of an image sensor area. Aspect ratio deviation: Shows the ratio between frame store data and true dimensions of an image.
 Structuring Element
  2D array used as a binary mask to define the neighbors of a pixel. You can modify the structuring element by clicking its cells. If a cell is black, it has a value of 1. If a cell is white (empty), it has a value of 0. If cell is black, the corresponding
 Surface Geometry   The angularity of an object's surface, ranging from flat to very faceted
 Sub-sampling  Sub-sampling is the process of skipping neighboring pixels (with the same color) while being read out from the CMOS or CCD chip. CMOS equipped MARLIN models, both color and b/w have this feature (FW > 2.03). E.g. the CCD model MARLIN F-146C is also equipped with this mode, acting as a preview mode. Because it is realized digitally there is no further speed increase. Sub-sampling is used primarily for 2 reasons: • A reduction in the number of pixels and thus the amount of data while retaining the original image area angle and image brightness • CMOS: an increase in the frame rate. Similar to binning mode the cameras support horizontal, vertical and h+v sub-sampling mode.
 System Integrator   A machine vision (MV) company that integrates components primarily manufactured by others to create an MV system for the specific needs of an individual customer. Work is performed by integrators on a project-by-
project basis instead of creating products for groups of customers.




An innovative leader in machine vision and laser integration deploying systems using advanced sensor technologies servicing industrial automation, scientific and military partners.